How does Lidocaine, Procaine, Carbocaine, Novocaine, etc work?

Like HOW do they numb?

10 pts. best (most detailed) answer!
The simple answer is that the local anaesthetics act directly on the nerve cell and prevent the electrical impulses from ratification along the nerve. The more complicated answer depends on understanding how the nerve urge is generated in the first place, which occupies several page of the textbook. Briefly, in the resting state the nerve cell generates a voltage across the cell membrane by justice of an active pumping mechanism which pumps sodium ions out of the cell, and allows potassium to diffuse in, to create an electrochemical slant. When the nerve is stimulated, sodium channels open and allow sodium ions to flow backbone in, reversing the electrical gradient ("depolarisation"). This electrical change serves to clear the sodium channels in the adjacent cubicle of membrane, and so a wave of depolarisation travels along the nerve cell. The local anaesthetic drug works by sitting on the sodium channel and preventing depolarisation, thus preventing the sodium entry into the cell. Source(s):…
First, permit me explain that there are two basic types of local anesthetic used in dentistry: 1) novacaine, which is an ester-type anesthetic; and 2) lidocaine, which is an amide-type anesthetic. Novacaine be discovered first, but due to allergic reactions, lidocaine and related anesthetics were developed within the 1940s. With the amide anesthetics, allergies are rare.

Here are the steps involved in achieving local anesthesia as adapted from Malamed, Stanley F., Handbook of Local Anesthesia, 2nd Edition, C.V. Mosby Company (1986) p. 13:

Displacement of calcium ions from the self-confidence receptor site
Binding of local anesthetic molecule to this receptor site
Blockade of the sodium channel
Decrease in sodium conductance
Depression of rate of electrical depolarization
Failure to achieve threshold potential horizontal
Lack of development of propagated action potential
Conduction blockade

These steps cause impulse that arrive in the blocked area to become stalled, thus preventing the "pain" impulses from reaching the brain.

The most commonly used local anesthetics are lidocaine or xylocaine. For most folks, the anesthesia lasts about two hours. The duration of numbness depends on how long the anesthetic takes to diffuse out of the tissues

Related Questions:
Nurses please answer!!?   Can anyone relate me what meningitis is?   Why do most family carry surgery to remove the Gall Bladder?   1st Day Taking Celexa for depression, can I pinch flonase or OTC Sinus/Alergy meds w/this med?   Can u fall short a urine audition when u haven't smoked surrounded by over a month?  
  • What will develop to me if I whip a soma pill after smoking some weed?
  • Can you surpass this drug testing?
  • Would Americans be liable to continue months to see a medical specialists or own non-life in your favour surgery?